Relevance theory has seriously challenged the theoretical soundness of formal and functional equivalence as Bible translation methods. In Translation and relevance: Cognition and context, Gutt (1991) argued that relevance theory provides translators with the best available framework for understanding and practicing translation. In his effort to provide a comprehensive account of translation, he proposed two new approaches to translation: direct translation and indirect translation. He did not, however, develop direct and indirect translation into well-defined approaches to translation.

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