The New Testament indicates that Judas Iscariot’s betrayal of Jesus was foreknown by God and by Jesus, and that it was in fulfillment of Scripture, and yet at the same time it judges him culpable for his actions. In that case, to what degree is divine foreknowledge compatible with human free will? This represents a difficult challenge and demands investigation. How does the Bible envisage the interface between the doctrines of divine foreknowledge and human free will with particular reference to the case of Judas Iscariot?

The gospels persistently use παραδίδωμι with Judas Iscariot instead of προδίδωμι or προδότης (except Luke’s single use of προδότης with him, Luke 6:16). This study discovers their possible reason(s) for doing so. Thus, this study examines relevant New Testament passages, which explicitly or implicitly identify Judas Iscariot. Determining how Judas Iscariot’s choice to carry out his act of betrayal fits into God’s choice and foreknowledge of him is significant. Thus, the study surveys the views of philosophers, major Christian traditions and some literature of Second Temple Judaism in order to assemble some of the solutions to the problem being investigated.

3