This thesis is a result of a bibliographic research made from literary ecclesiology works of general theology and sociologic literatures, in a Christian and missiology perspective, in attempt to identify the reason of the existence of dichotomy in the theology of types of the Christian faith universe as well as aspects of greater social incidence of the church. Our aim is to answer the following questions: Does the church have social responsibilities? How has the church responded to the social problem in its context? Until what point can the church be a transforming instrument in society? Also, in a resumed way, we try to offer answers to questions related with the needs of the Bible and Theology as for the church not to lose itself on the ways of liberalism, fundamentalism and post-modern pragmatism. We also make an approach about the type, or types, of Theology that the church needs to operate as a true agent of transformation of the human being as a person and its social-political and cultural context.